Sulawesi Language Alliance

Championing Local Languages in the Heart of Indonesia

Introduction to "Guide to the Study of the Ledo Language"

Resource File: 
In 1934 the linguist Samuel J. Esser published a guide to learning Ledo Kaili, at that time one of the principal linga francas of Central Celebes (Sulawesi), Indonesia. His guide, Handleiding voor de Beoefening der Ledo-taal, comprised three sections: an introduction (pages 1–25) followed by Ledo texts with translation and grammar notes (pages 26–50), and finally an extensive Dutch-Ledo lexicon arranged alphabetically according to the Dutch (pages 51–90). In this work we present the 25-page introduction in its English translation.
Sulang Language Data and Working Papers: Translations from the Dutch
Series Number: 
Sulawesi Language Alliance
Year Published: 
Subject Language(s): 
Ledo Kaili
ISO 639-3: 
Publication Language(s): 
Esser, Samuel J.
Vries, Anneke de
Mead, David
Table of Contents: 
I. Sound system and stress; II. Tense; III. Participles; IV. Substantive forms of verbs and adjectives; V. A few remarks concerning the prefixes; VI. A few remarks concerning the suffixes; VII. A few remarks concerning numerals
Esser, S. J. 1934. Handleiding voor de beoefening der Ledo-taal: Inleiding, teksten met vertaling en aanteekeningen en woordenlijst. (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, 72/1.) Bandoeng: Nix. This is a translation of the Introduction only (pages 1 through 25), not the entire work.
Version History: 
Version 1 [31 March 2015] Translated orally into English in a somewhat free, summarizing style by Anneka de Vries, July 1989, and recorded on two cassette tapes; recordings partially transcribed by Donna Evans circa 1990; recordings converted to electronic format by Sung-wook Kim, July 2005; translation reworked by David Mead in August 2005, based on the original Dutch, Anneke’s recordings, and the transcription; formatted for publication March 2015.
Supporting File: 
File Description: 
Scanned version of the original Dutch
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