Sulawesi Language Alliance

Championing Local Languages in the Heart of Indonesia

Phonology and Orthography Descriptions

The series Sulang Language Data and Working Papers: Phonology and Orthography Descriptions is published by Sulawesi Language Alliance.

Papers on phonology describe the sound system of a language, and may range from an organized database that provides initial evidence for the contrastive sounds of a language, to a full-fledged phonological description, or even a detailed investigation of a specialized topic (e.g. stress, long vowels).

Papers on orthography discuss the writing system which is proposed or has been adopted for a Sulawesi language. A good writing system must be based on a correct understanding of the sound system. Beyond specifying how each sound is to be symbolized, however, orthographic decisions cover additional areas such as word break decisions, use of hyphens and capitalization, how to write contracted forms, and whether to write underlying or surface forms when processes of sound change operate across morpheme and word boundaries.

Descriptions appearing in this series are working papers, and updated versions may be posted from time to time. To submit a report for inclusion in this series, see our guidelines on how to submit a resource.

Papers in this series are posted as PDF files. PDF files can be viewed or printed using the free Adobe Reader.

Please make sure you have read and agree to our terms and conditions of use before downloading any documents or other files from this page.

001 Lenition: A Challenging Issue in Sangir Orthography
Abstract: When a Sangir word or prefix ends in a vowel, a following b, d, l or g is weakened to respectively w, r, ḷ (retroflexed l) and gh (velar fricative). This lenition occurs across word boundaries and across morpheme boundaries, but not within roots. The orthography recommendation is to write weakened forms across morpheme boundaries and strong forms across word boundaries.
Year Published: 2010
Subject Language: Sangir
Publication Language: English
Contributors: Pamela Day
002 A Simple Test for the Three ‘d’ Sounds of Kulisusu
Abstract: According to my preliminary analysis, the Kulisusu language contrasted three voiced stops in the dento-alveolar region—what could be described in layman’s terms as three ‘d’ sounds. Against this analysis, however, some Kulisusu speakers insisted that their language had only two ‘d’ sounds. In order to test these competing hypotheses, as well as look for possible variation between speakers in this regard, I developed a simple exercise using flash cards. This test, described herein, proved easy to administer and yielded insightful results.
Year Published: 2014
Subject Language: Kulisusu
Publication Language: English
Contributors: David Mead

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