Sulawesi Language Alliance

Championing Local Languages in the Heart of Indonesia

The Languages of the Togian Islands

Resource File: 
In this paper Adriani clarifies the language situation of the Togian Islands in the Gulf of Tomini, Celebes (Sulawesi), and presents sketches of three languages found there: Bobongko, Bajo (Bajau), and the Togian subdialect of the Ampana dialect of Bare’e (Pamona). Topics include phonology (the sound system and phenomena such as stress, contraction, nasalization and paragogic vowels), morphology (affixes), certain word classes with closed membership (pronouns, deictics, numerals), and finally his thoughts concerning the etymologies of selected words. For Ampana Adriani discusses the practice of taboo word replacement and presents two folktales and four riddles representing the Togian subdialect.
Sulang Language Data and Working Papers: Translations from the Dutch
Series Number: 
Sulawesi Language Alliance
Year Published: 
Subject Language(s): 
Bobongko, Indonesian Bajau, Pamona (Ampana dialect)
ISO 639-3: 
bgb, bdl, pmf
Publication Language(s): 
Adriani, Nicolaus
Mead, David
Table of Contents: 
I. Bobongko; Sound System of Bobongko; Vowels; Consonants; Gutturals; Supradentals and Linguals; Palatals; Labials; Word Form; Particulars Concerning the Sounds; Stress; Contraction; Nasalization; Transposition; Ligature; Pronouns; Personal Pronouns; Deictic Pronouns; Interrogative Pronouns; Numerals; Prefixes, Infixes and Suffixes; Prefixes; Infixes; Suffixes; Particles; Some Notable Words; II. Bajo; Sound System; Vowels; Consonants; Gutturals; Labials; Supradentals; Palatals; Liquids; Semivowels; Word Form; Some Sound Phenomena; Stress; Word Repetition and Reduplication; Pronouns; Numerals; Particles; Prefixes, Infixes and Suffixes; Prefixes; Infixes; Suffixes; III. Togian; Sound System, Word Form, Stress; Some Sound Phenomena; Prefixes, Infixes and Suffixes; Prefixes; Infixes; Suffixes; Numerals; Pronouns; Word Replacement; Some Notable Words; Texts; Riddles; Relationship of Ampana with its Neighbors; References.
Adriani, N. 1900. De Talen der Togian-Eilanden. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 42:428–490, 539–566. Original pagination is indicated by enclosing the page number in brackets, e.g. [p. 428].
Version History: 
Version 1 [10 April 2014] Translated 2002, 2004, February–March 2010, June–July 2013, December 2013, and January 2014. Revised for publication April 2014.
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