Highland Konjo (Konjo Pegunungan) and Coastal Konjo (Konjo Pesisir) have been regarded as separate languages on both linguistic and sociological grounds since the in-depth Makasar survey by Timothy and Barbara Friberg (conducted 1987–1988, preliminary results reported in Friberg and Laskowske 1989:3 ff.). While Coastal and Highland Konjo share linguistic and historical ties, through a process of cultural assimilation Highland Konjo has been strongly influenced by Makasar, such that today speakers of Highland Konjo identify more readily with Makasar than with Coastal Konjo.
Location and Dialects
The Highland Konjo area streches through the provinces of Barru, Pangkep, Maros, Bone (both far west and far south), eastern Goa, upland Takalar, Jeneponto and Bantaeng, northern Bulukumba and western Sinjai. This language area “represents a series of dialects made more distinct by the geography of mountain and valley” (Friberg and Laskowske 1989:3), but Highland Konjo dialects have yet to be elucidated in a proper dialect geography study.
In 1991 the number of Highland Konjo was estimated at 150,000 (reported in Grimes 1996:661).
Friberg, Timothy; and Thomas V. Laskowske. 1989. South Sulawesi languages, 1989. Studies in Sulawesi linguistics, part 1 (NUSA: Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia, 31), edited by James N. Sneddon, 1–17. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya. [Reproduced online. URL: http://sealang.net/archives/nusa/pdf/nusa-v31-p1-18.pdf (accessed January 13, 2014).]
Grimes, Barbara F. (ed.) 1996. Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 13th ed. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.